Meeting 28 March 1974. Papers. Retrograde Ureterography. by Philip Clark MD Mchir. (Department of Urology, The General Infirmary.
What is Pyelography used for?
An intravenous pyelogram is used to examine your kidneys, ureters and bladder. It lets your doctor see the size and shape of these structures and determine if they’re working properly.
What is the purpose of a retrograde pyelogram?
A retrograde pyelogram is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at your bladder, ureters, and kidneys. The ureters are the long tubes that connect your kidneys to your bladder. This test is usually done during a test called cystoscopy.
How is retrograde pyelography done?
A retrograde pyelogram is performed by injecting dye into a thin tube (catheter) into opening of ureter (tube draining kidney into bladder). This can be used to outline ureter/kidney anatomy and assist in placement of the stent.
What is hydronephrosis of kidney?
Hydronephrosis is a condition where one or both kidneys become stretched and swollen as the result of a build-up of urine inside them. It can affect people of any age and is sometimes spotted in unborn babies during routine pregnancy ultrasound scans.
Is Ureteroscopy painful?
Most ureteroscopy patients have mild to moderate pain that can be managed with medications. To relieve mild pain: You should drink two eight-ounce glasses of water every hour in the two hours after the procedure.
How long does it take to heal from a cystoscopy?
These symptoms should get better in 1 or 2 days. You will probably be able to go back to work or most of your usual activities in 1 or 2 days. This care sheet gives you a general idea about how long it will take for you to recover. But each person recovers at a different pace.
What is cystoscopy with stent placement?
Under a general anaesthetic, a cystoscopy is performed and under X-ray guidance, contrast is inserted into the ureter giving a picture of the drainage system of the kidney and ureter. A flexible, silicone stent is then inserted internally, with an end in the kidney and the other in the bladder.
How do they put a stent in your ureter?
The doctor will place the stent by guiding it up the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. Then the doctor will pass the stent through the bladder and ureter into the kidney. The doctor will place one end of the stent in the kidney and the other end in the bladder.
What a retrograde means?
move backward By definition, retrograde means to move backward, have a backward motion or direction, retire, or retreat. First coined in the 1300s, the word retrograde was originally used to describe the perceived motions of the planets and is derived from the Latin prefix retro, or backward.
How do you prepare a patient for a retrograde pyelogram?
Do I need to prepare?
- Fast for a few hours before the procedure. Many doctors will tell you to stop eating and drinking after midnight on the day of the procedure. …
- Take a laxative. …
- Take some time off work. …
- Stop taking certain medications.
What is a JJ stent urology?
A ureteric stent (also called a J-J stent or double-J stent) is a thin, flexible plastic tube which is curled at both ends to avoid damaging the kidney and urinary bladder and to prevent it from dislocating.
Is cystoscopy considered surgery?
Cystoscopy is a surgical procedure. This is done to see the inside of the bladder and urethra using a thin, lighted tube.
What is DJ stenting procedure?
Ureteral stenting (also known as double J stent) is the procedure to place a thin, flexible plastic tube that is temporarily in the ureter to help urine drain from the kidney into the bladder in the case of a blockage. The ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
What does retrograde mean in urology?
A retrograde pyelogram is a type of X-ray that allows visualization of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis. Generally, this test is performed during a procedure called cystoscopy evaluation of the bladder with an endoscope (a long, flexible lighted tube).
What is the best treatment for hydronephrosis?
Most people with hydronephrosis will have a procedure called catheterisation to drain the urine from their kidneys. Depending on the underlying cause, medication or surgery may be needed afterwards to correct the problem.
How serious is hydronephrosis?
Left untreated, severe hydronephrosis can lead to permanent kidney damage. Rarely, it can cause kidney failure. But hydronephrosis typically affects only one kidney and the other kidney can do the work for both.
Can hydronephrosis be cured?
Hydronephrosis is usually treated by addressing the underlying disease or cause, such as a kidney stone or infection. Some cases can be resolved without surgery. Infections can be treated with antibiotics. A kidney stone can pass through by itself or might be severe enough to require removal with surgery.
Is ureteroscopy a major surgery?
Ureteroscopy is a minimally invasive method to treat kidney stones as well as stones located in the ureter. It is performed in the operating room with general or spinal anesthesia, and is typically an out-patient procedure (you go home the same day).
Do I have to have a stent after ureteroscopy?
Routine ureteral stenting is not necessary after ureteroscopy and ureteropyeloscopy: a randomized trial.
What are the side effects of ureteroscopy?
What are the risks of cystoscopy and ureteroscopy?
- abnormal bleeding.
- abdominal pain or a burning feeling or pain while urinating.
- the inability to urinate swelling.
- injury to the urethra, bladder, or ureters.
- urethral narrowing due to scar tissue formation.
- complications from anesthesia.
What type of sedation is used for cystoscopy?
For a rigid cystoscopy: you’re given an injection of general anaesthetic (which makes you fall asleep) into your hand, or a spinal anaesthetic (which numbs the lower half of your body) into your lower back.
Why would a urologist do a cystoscopy?
During a cystoscopy, a urinary tract specialist (urologist) uses a scope to view the inside of the bladder and urethra. Doctors use cystoscopy to diagnose and treat urinary tract problems. These problems include bladder cancer, bladder control issues, enlarged prostates and urinary tract infections.
Can I drive home after a cystoscopy?
After a rigid cystoscopy You can go home once you’re feeling better and you’ve emptied your bladder. Most people leave hospital the same day, but sometimes an overnight stay might be needed. You’ll need to arrange for someone to take you home as you will not be able to drive for at least 24 hours.
What are the disadvantages of stents?
damage to the artery where the sheath was inserted. allergic reaction to the contrast agent used during the procedure. damage to an artery in the heart. excessive bleeding requiring a blood transfusion.
Can I poop with a stent in?
You must keep from straining to have a bowel movement. A bowel movement every other day is reasonable. Use a mild laxative if needed and call if you are having problems.
Does stent removal require anesthesia?
Since no intravenous line is inserted and there is no anesthesia, you do not have to be accompanied by anyone else and you can eat normally before and after the procedure. For those patients who prefer having the stent removed under IV sedation, arrangements must be made for post-operative patient transportation.
Why does my ureteral stent hurt so much?
These side effects are usually due to the stent being inside the bladder and causing irritation. They will disappear when the stent is removed. Stents can cause discomfort and pain in the bladder, kidneys, groin, urethra and the genitals.
How painful is ureteral stent removal?
The majority of patients reported moderate-to-severe levels of pain with stent removal, with an overall mean pain of 4.8 on a scale of 1 to 10. Office cystoscopy resulted in the highest mean pain, followed by use of a dangler-string in the office.
How bad does a stent hurt?
If it was placed because of severe pain from a stone, stent discomfort is usually significantly less. Most patients will experience some discomfort which may include pain in the back, flank and pelvis, urinary urgency and frequency, and intermittent blood in the urine.