Abstract: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) parameters like the Inertia weight and acceleration coefficients are generally kept constant in classical PSO. … This dynamic modification of the coefficient has been found to increase the efficiency of PSO and also improve its convergence speed.

## What is the accelerator principle in economics?

The acceleration principle is an economic concept that draws a connection between fluctuations in consumption and capital investment. It states that when demand for consumer goods increases, demand for equipment and other investments necessary to make these goods will grow even more.

## What is the main assumption of the acceleration theory?

The principle of acceleration is based on the assumption that there is a constant ratio of the output of consumer goods and capital equipment needed for their production i.e., there is constant capital output ratio. In reality this ratio is not necessarily constant.

## What are c1 and c2 in PSO?

The constants c1 and c2 are also referred to as trust parameters, where c1 expresses how much Page 2 16.4 Basic PSO Parameters 313 confidence a particle has in itself, while c2 expresses how much confidence a par- ticle has in its neighbors.

## What is PSO swarm size?

The fourth control parameter in classical PSO is the swarm size (also called population size, or the number of particles). The swarm size may be considered the most basic control parameter of PSO, as it simply defines the number of individuals in the swarm, and hence its setting can hardly be avoided.

## What are the components of acceleration coefficient in economics?

So, the accelerator coefficient can be expressed as the capital-output ratio. Since, the demand for capital goods is not just affected by consumer demand, but also by national output demand, accelerator coefficient is dependent on the relevant change in output (T) and change in investment (I).

## What are the limitations of the accelerator principle?

Limitations of the accelerator effect Time lags in investment. Once a project is started, a firm will tend to want to complete it even if demand slows down. Firms won’t respond to every minor change in demand and output. Investment requires planning and once started, can’t be easily stopped.

## What is expressed by accelerator?

The accelerator theory is an economic postulation whereby investment expenditure increases when either demand or income increases. The theory also suggests that when there is excess demand, companies can either decrease demand by raising prices or increase investment to meet the level of demand.

## What is the link between accelerator and multiplier?

Multiplier shows the effect of a change in investment on income and employment whereas accelerator shows the effects of a change in consumption on investment. In other words, in the case of multiplier, consumption is dependent upon investment, whereas in the case of accelerator investment is dependent upon consumption.

## What is the difference between accelerator and multiplier?

The accelerator is the numerical value of the relation between an increase in consumption and the resulting increasing in Investment. The multiplier is the ration of the change in national income to change in Investment.

## Which is the second largest economy of the world?

The top 20 largest economies in the world by GDP

Rank | Country | GDP (Nominal) (billions of $) |
---|---|---|

1 | United States | 20,807.27 |

2 | China | 15,222.16 |

3 | Japan | 4,910.58 |

4 | Germany | 3,780.55 |

## What is PSO inertia weight?

The inertia weight controls the convergence behavior of PSO. Initially the inertia weight was considered as a constant value. … A new inertia weight which is neither set to a constant value nor set as a linearly decreasing time-varying function is used in this paper and appears in (4.2).

## What is particle swarm optimization PDF?

Particle Swarm Optimization is an algorithm capable of optimizing a non-linear and multidimensional problem which usually reaches good solutions efficiently while requiring minimal parameterization.

## What is the range of constant r1 and r2 in PSO algorithm?

represent the weighting of stochastic acceleration terms that pull each particle towards pbest and gbest positions. r1 and r2 are two random functions in the range [0, 1]. The PSO algorithm is simple in concept, easy to implement and computationally efficient.

## How many particles are in a particle swarm?

The optimal number is between 10 and 20 particles. However, it is better to try different numbers to pick the best number which fits your problem. I’ve worked more in single-objective PSO than MOPSO.

## What is particle swarm optimization technique?

In computational science, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality. … The algorithm was simplified and it was observed to be performing optimization.

## What is the parameters of particle swarm optimization?

Parameters selection of PSO will play an important role in performance and efficiency of the algorithm. In this paper, the performance of PSO is analyzed when the control parameters vary, including particle number, accelerate constant, inertia weight and maximum limited velocity.

## What would a Microeconomist study?

Microeconomics is the study of human action and interaction. … Ultimately, microeconomics is about human choices and incentives. Most people are introduced to microeconomics through the study of scarce resources, money prices, and the supply and demand of goods and services.

## Which is the main objectives of macroeconomics?

The overarching goals of macroeconomics are to maximize the standard of living and achieve stable economic growth. The goals are supported by objectives such as minimizing unemployment, increasing productivity, controlling inflation, and more.

## What is Phillips curve in economics?

What is the Phillips Curve? The Phillips curve is an economic concept developed by A. W. Phillips stating that inflation and unemployment have a stable and inverse relationship. The theory claims that with economic growth comes inflation, which in turn should lead to more jobs and less unemployment.

## Who is treated as father of economics?

Adam Smith was an 18th-century Scottish economist, philosopher, and author, and is considered the father of modern economics. Smith is most famous for his 1776 book, The Wealth of Nations.

## What would cause the value of accelerator to increase?

The accelerator effect happens when an increase in national income (GDP) results in a proportionately larger rise in capital investment spending. In other words, we often see a surge in capital spending by businesses when an economy is growing quite strongly.

## What is positive output gap?

During economic downturns an economy’s output of goods and services declines. … A positive output gap occurs when actual output is more than full-capacity output. This happens when demand is very high and, to meet that demand, factories and workers operate far above their most efficient capacity.

## What is acceleration principle equation called?

This unique relationship between investment and change in income is called acceleration principle. It = vYt vYt-1.

## What is flexible accelerator?

ADVERTISEMENTS: The flexible accelerator theory removes one of the major weaknesses of the simple acceleration principle that the capital stock is optimally adjusted without any time lag. In the flexible accelerator, there are lags in the adjustment process between the level of output and the level of capital stock.

## What is simple accelerator model?

The simple accelerator model suggests that capital investment is a function of output. If there is an increase in demand and economic output, investment will rise to meet the expected demand. The simple accelerator model suggests that a fall in the growth rate can lead to lower investment.

## What is the GDP formula?

GDP Formula GDP = private consumption + gross private investment + government investment + government spending + (exports imports). … In the United States, GDP is measured by the Bureau of Economic Analysis within the U.S. Commerce Department.

## How do you calculate MPC from MPS?

Mathematically, in a closed economy, MPS + MPC = 1, since an increase in one unit of income will be either consumed or saved. In the above example, If MPS = 0.4, then MPC = 1 – 0.4 = 0.6.

## What is leakage in macroeconomics?

What Is Leakage? In economics, leakage refers to capital or income that diverges from some kind of iterative system. … Within this depiction, leakages are the non-consumption uses of income, including saving, taxes, and imports.