What is Abell Kendall method?

By | January 2, 2022

Modified Abell-Kendall method. This is a standard reference method for total blood cholesterol measurement. It is a multi-step classical chemical method, which involves saponification of cholesterol esters by hydroxide, extraction with hexane, and color development with acetic anhydridesulfuric acid.

What is the most common method for cholesterol?

The most commonly used assays to quantify cholesterol levels can be separated into two groups: 1) analytical methods such as gas-liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with flame ionization or mass spectrometry detection and quantification (24); and 2) enzymatic assays, which can be colorimetric (5, 6) …

What are the methods for cholesterol determination?

Multiple analytical methods have been developed for analysis of cholesterol, including classical chemical methods, enzymatic assays, gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and mass spectrometry (MS).

Why is the cholesterol esterase step necessary in the cholesterol assay?

In the cholesterol assay protocol, cholesterol oxidase acts on free cholesterol to produce a chemical which reacts with a probe to generate color (570 nm) and fluorescence (Ex/Em = 538/587 nm). Cholesterol esterase is used to hydrolyze cholesteryl ester into free cholesterol.

What is the purpose of the saponification step used in the Abell Kendall method for cholesterol measurement?

The Abell-Kendall method is the reference method for cholesterol assay because differences in esterase activity and interference in the peroxidase step are potential sources of error in enzymatic assays. Saponification is performed to hydrolyze the fatty acid esters of cholesterol, forming free cholesterol.

Why is serum triglyceride estimation important?

The triglyceride level test will help your doctor determine your risk of developing heart disease. It helps estimate the level of LDL cholesterol in your blood. … It can increase your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. You should have a lipid profile done every five years as part of your regular medical exam.

How can I lower my cholesterol quickly?

A few changes in your diet can reduce cholesterol and improve your heart health:

  1. Reduce saturated fats. Saturated fats, found primarily in red meat and full-fat dairy products, raise your total cholesterol. …
  2. Eliminate trans fats. …
  3. Eat foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids. …
  4. Increase soluble fiber. …
  5. Add whey protein.

What can cause a false high cholesterol reading?

Improper fasting, medications, human error, and a variety of other factors can cause your test to produce false-negative or false-positive results. Testing both your HDL and LDL levels typically produces more accurate results than checking your LDL alone.

What should my cholesterol be for my age?

What are normal levels of cholesterol?

Age and sex Total cholesterol HDL cholesterol
Age and sex Total cholesterol HDL cholesterol
People aged 19 years and younger Total cholesterol Less than 120 mg/dL
Men aged 20 years and older Total cholesterol Less than 130 mg/dL
Women aged 20 years and older Total cholesterol Less than 130 mg/dL

Which colour filter is used in cholesterol determination?

The LiebermannBurchard or acetic anhydride test is used for the detection of cholesterol. The formation of a green or green-blue colour after a few minutes is positive. LiebermanBurchard is a reagent used in a colourimetric test to detect cholesterol, which gives a deep green colour.

How is HDL C measured?

Direct HDL method. HDL is measured directly in serum. The basic principle of the method is as follows. The apoB containing lipoproteins in the specimen are reacted with a blocking reagent that renders them non-reactive with the enzymatic cholesterol reagent under conditions of the assay.

How is HDL and LDL calculated?

The traditional Friedewald equation estimates LDL cholesterol this way: total cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol minus triglycerides divided by five. For simplicity’s sake, the formula applies a one-size-fits-all factor of five to everyone.

What is cholesterol esterase?

Cholesterol esterase (CE) (bile salt-stimulated esterase or carboxyl ester lipase) primarily hydrolyzes cholesterol esters. It is synthesized in the pancreas and is released in response to CCK in a fully active form. … Its nonspecific hydrolyzing ability means that it can hydrolyze TAG as well as MAG.

What is the importance of cholesterol esterase reaction?

Background. Pancreatic cholesterol esterase has three proposed functions in the intestine: 1) to control the bioavailability of cholesterol from dietary cholesterol esters; 2) to contribute to incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles; and 3) to aid in transport of free cholesterol to the enterocyte.

What does HDL do to cholesterol in the blood?

HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or good cholesterol, absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver. The liver then flushes it from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol can lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.

What is saponification oil?

Saponification of oils is the applied term to the operation in which ethanolic KOH reacts with oil to form glycerol and fatty acids. Production of fatty acid and glycerol from oils is important especially in oleochemical industries.

What are the advantages of enzymatic method for cholesterol estimation?

The enzymatic assay of cholesterol in bile proved to be sensitive and precise. In comparison to other methods of biliary cholesterol determination, it has the advantage of being rapid and simple.

What is serum TC?

Here, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the importance of serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in AD and MCI patients.

Is 75 a good triglyceride level?

Normal triglyceride levels are < 150 mg/dL. Triglyceride levels between 150 and 199 mg/dL are borderline high. High triglyceride levels occur at 200499 mg/dL. Anything over 500 mg/dL is considered very high.

What is a good triglyceride reading?

A simple blood test can reveal whether your triglycerides fall into a healthy range:

  • Normal Less than 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or less than 1.7 millimoles per liter (mmol/L)
  • Borderline high 150 to 199 mg/dL (1.8 to 2.2 mmol/L)
  • High 200 to 499 mg/dL (2.3 to 5.6 mmol/L)

What is the alarming level of triglycerides?

There’s no question that extremely high levels (1,000 mg/dL or more) spell trouble and can lead to acute pancreatitis. But what about treating lower levels of triglycerides? …

Triglyceride levels
Normal Less than 150*
Borderline high 150199
High 200499
Very high 500 or higher

Can drinking water help cholesterol?

In the process, cholesterol production is increased, and more cholesterol is released into the circulatory system. Hydration is vital to good circulatory health. Inadequate water consumption decreases blood volume, impacting arterial pressure.

What is the best drink to lower cholesterol?

Best drinks to improve cholesterol

  1. Green tea. Green tea contains catechins and other antioxidant compounds that seem to help lower bad LDL and total cholesterol levels. …
  2. Soy milk. Soy is low in saturated fat. …
  3. Oat drinks. …
  4. Tomato juice. …
  5. Berry smoothies. …
  6. Drinks containing sterols and stanols. …
  7. Cocoa drinks. …
  8. Plant milk smoothies.

Is coffee bad for cholesterol?

While coffee does not contain cholesterol, it can affect cholesterol levels. The diterpenes in coffee suppress the body’s production of substances involved in cholesterol breakdown, which causes cholesterol to increase. Specifically, coffee diterpenes may cause an increase in total cholesterol and LDL levels.

What can throw off a cholesterol test?

8 Most experts advise avoiding alcohol for 24 hours prior to testing. Inflammation or infection. Either can skew cholesterol numbers, particularly in chronic cases. Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and psoriasis may affect scores.

What are the warning signs of high cholesterol?

If levels of LDL cholesterol are too high, or levels of HDL cholesterol are too low, fatty deposits build up in your blood vessels. … The most common symptoms include:

  • angina, chest pain.
  • nausea.
  • extreme fatigue.
  • shortness of breath.
  • pain in the neck, jaw, upper abdomen, or back.
  • numbness or coldness in your extremities.

What vitamins can raise your cholesterol?

Niacin is an important B vitamin that may raise your HDL, (good), cholesterol. Find out if you should talk to your doctor about taking niacin alone or with cholesterol medications.

What are the worst foods for high cholesterol?

Cholesterol in food (dietary cholesterol) this has only a small effect on LDL (bad) cholesterol -saturated fats and trans-fats in food have a much greater effect. You can also eat up to 7 eggs a week as part of a healthy, balanced diet low in saturated and trans-fats, without increasing your risk of heart disease.

Can you live long with high cholesterol?

Many people who have high cholesterol die from complications of heart disease before reaching an advanced age. Those who live into their 70s or 80s despite high cholesterol might have other factors that increased their longevity.

What is dangerously high cholesterol?

Levels of 100 to 129 mg/dL are acceptable for people with no health issues but may be of more concern for those with heart disease or heart disease risk factors. A reading of 130 to 159 mg/dL is borderline high and 160 to 189 mg/dL is high. A reading of 190 mg/dL or higher is considered very high.