Keratoderma is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization defined by the presence of focal or generalized thickening of the skin of the palms and/or soles.
What is focal hyperkeratosis?
Focal acral hyperkeratosis (FAH) is a rare and benign cutaneous disorder characterized by clusters of discrete, small, firm, hyperkeratotic papules along the borders of the hands and feet. The exact etiology and pathogenesis are not known.
What is Palmoplantar Keratoderma?
Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a group of skin conditions characterized by thickening of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. PPK can also be a feature of various underlying syndromes. In rare forms of PPK, organs other than the skin may also be affected.
What is punctate Keratoderma?
Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type I is a rare condition that affects the skin. It is a sub-type of punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Signs and symptoms typically begin in early adolescence or later and include hard, round bumps of thickened skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
What causes Keratoderma?
What causes palmoplantar keratoderma? Keratoderma may be inherited (hereditary) or, more commonly, acquired. The hereditary keratodermas are caused by a gene abnormality that results in abnormal skin protein (keratin). They may be inherited either by an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern.
Is there a cure for palmoplantar keratoderma?
Inherited palmoplantar keratodermas are not curable but symptoms can be controlled. The aim of treatment is to reduce the thickness of the skin and to soften the skin.
What is epidermal thickening?
Hyperkeratosis is the term to describe thickening of keratin in the epidermis, which is the outer layer of the skin. Keratin is a protein found in the outer layers of the skin that helps to protect the body.
Is Keratoderma autoimmune?
1 Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPKs) are characterized by hyperkeratosis of the skin on the palms and soles. 2 Multiple cases have been reported associating PPK with autoimmune thyroiditis.
Is palmoplantar keratoderma itchy?
The rashes over the hands and feet considerably increased to alter the texture of the skin and to occupy their current position. Itching and/or pain were its preeminent features. Profuse sweating of the affected part was also an attribute.
Is palmoplantar keratoderma a disability?
Hypohidrosis-enamel hypoplasia-palmoplantar keratoderma-intellectual disability syndrome is a rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability with significant speech and language impairment, hypohydrosis (often resulting in hyperthermia) with normal sweat gland …
What is Howel Evans syndrome?
Howel-Evans syndrome, also known as Clarke-Howel-Evans-McConnell syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (NEPPK), oral leukoplakia, and an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
What Acquired keratosis?
What is acquired keratoderma? Acquired keratoderma is a palmoplantar keratoderma that is NOT inherited as a primary genetic condition. It may occur as part of a generalised skin condition (some of which may be inherited) or as a result of another illness.
What is Aquagenic Keratoderma?
Aquagenic keratoderma (AK) is a rare acquired skin condition characterized by recurrent and transient white papules and plaques associated with a burning sensation, pain, pruritus and/or hyperhidrosis on the palms and more rarely, soles triggered by sweat or contact with water.
Can Palmoplantar psoriasis be cured?
Palmoplantar psoriasis tends to be a long-term condition. There is no cure, but treatment can help control symptoms.
How is acquired Keratoderma treated?
If no such etiology is evident, then conservative treatment options include topical keratolytics (urea, salicylic acid, lactic acid), repeated physical debridement, topical retinoids, topical psoralen plus UVA, and topical corticosteroids.
How is hyperkeratosis treated?
Your doctor may use cryosurgery to remove a single actinic keratosis. Multiple keratoses can be treated with skin peels, laser therapy or dermabrasion. Seborrheic keratoses. This can be removed with cryosurgery or with a scalpel.
What is Naxos disease?
Naxos disease is a recessive association of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) with wooly hair and palmoplantar keratoderma or similar skin disorder.
What is Palmoplantar?
Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a rare, recurrent inflammatory disorder. Affected individuals develop small to large sterile blisters filled with a yellow turbid liquid (pustules) on the palms of the hands and/or soles of the feet. The pustules may be painful and cause a burning feeling.
Why is thick skin on palms?
Thick skin is present on the soles of the feet and palms of the hands. This is because these areas receive more friction than other areas of the body, and thicker skin helps to protect from potential damage. The epidermis of thick skin can be up to 1.5 mm .
What disease causes thickening of the skin?
Scleroderma (sklair-oh-DUR-muh) is a group of rare diseases that involve the hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues. Scleroderma affects women more often than men and most commonly occurs between the ages of 30 and 50.
What is ichthyosis vulgaris?
Ichthyosis vulgaris (ik-thee-O-sis vul-GAY-ris) is an inherited skin disorder in which dead skin cells accumulate in thick, dry scales on your skin’s surface.
What does thickened skin look like?
When you continually scratch an area of skin or it is rubbed for a prolonged period of time, your skin cells begin to grow. This leads to a thickening of the skin and an exaggeration of normal skin markings such as cracks, wrinkles, or scales that gives your skin a leathery or bark-like appearance.
How many people have PPK?
Punctate Palmoplantar Keratoderma (PPK) often appears in adolescence with epidermal thickening of the palms and soles characterized as hyperkeratotic growths. PPK occurs in 1 in 100,000 people and is acquired or inherited in an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.
Is hyperkeratosis hereditary?
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. This means that one copy of a mutated gene is able to cause the disorder and can be inherited from either parent. If one parent is affected, each child has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease.
How do you treat keratosis punctata of the palmar creases?
Treatment options include topical keratolytics, emollients and occasionally systemic retinoids for severe cases. Systemic retinoids, such as etretinate, carry the risk of associated side effects such as hepatotoxicity.
Is acquired Keratoderma curable?
Treatment of acquired and hereditary palmoplantar keratoses There is as yet no cure for hereditary palmoplantar keratoses. In patients with acquired PPK, the cause should be treated (toxins, infection, other factors.) or eliminated, if possible.
What is Transgrediens?
A rare, isolated, diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma disorder characterized by red-yellow, moderate to severe hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands, feet and/or wrists and involving the skin over the Achilles’ tendon (transgrediens), gradually worsening with age (progrediens) …
What causes keratosis punctata of the palmar creases?
The lesions begin in adolescence or early adulthood with the formation of hyperkeratotic plugs, which break off, leaving characteristic pits. Some authors believe that KPPC is an exaggerated response to localized trauma, which may explain the slight male predilection and association with manual labor.