A bovis is part of the normal oral flora of ruminants. Disease is seen when A bovis is introduced to underlying soft tissue via penetrating wounds of the oral mucosa from wire or coarse hay or sticks.
What are the symptoms of actinomycosis?
- Draining sores in the skin, especially on the chest wall from lung infection with actinomyces.
- Mild or no pain.
- Swelling or a hard, red to reddish-purple lump on the face or upper neck.
- Weight loss.
Which disease is caused by actinomycetes?
Actinomycosis is a rare chronic disease caused by Actinomyces spp., anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria that normally colonize the human mouth and digestive and genital tracts.
What is actinomycosis in cattle?
Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial disease and is more common in cattle than in goats and sheep. The bacteria enter through cuts and abrasions (i.e. due to teeth eruptions or coarse feed) and migrate to the bone, leading to osteomyeltitis (inflammation and infection of the bony tissues).
Is Actinomyces Bovis zoonotic?
It is important to note that Actinomyces bovis is a zoonotic organism causing granulomas, abscesses, skin lesions, and bronchopneumonia in humans.
How is actinomycosis treated in cattle?
Sodium iodide is the treatment of choice in ruminant actinomycosis. Intravenous sodium iodide (70 mg/kg of a 10%20% solution) is given once and then repeated several times at 710 day intervals.
How does actinomycosis spread?
If something sharp pierces the internal body tissues, such as a fish bone in the esophagus, the bacteria can spread. Actinomycosis can also happen if there is tooth decay or gum disease.
Is actinomycosis painful?
The lump itself isn’t typically painful. However, it can result in a painful skin abscess that first appears as a reddish bruise at the site. Actinomycosis can also cause muscle spasms in the jaw or a locked jaw. If this happens, the mouth cannot open in a normal way.
What kills Actinomyces?
Long-term, high-dose penicillin is the mainstay of actinomycosis treatment to completely eliminate the organism and prevent recurrence.
Is Actinomyces a bacteria or fungi?
Actinomycetes are a group of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the order Actinomycetales. These organisms are phylogenetically diverse but morphologically similar, exhibiting characteristic filamentous branching structures which then fragment into bacillary or coccoid forms (1) (Figure 1).
Are actinomycetes fungi or bacteria?
Actinomycetes are a group of bacteria that share some common characteristics with fungi and in the eye can cause similar disease to fungi. They are able to form hyphae, usually considered a trait of fungi only.
What antibiotics cover Actinomyces?
Preferred regimens We generally suggest high-dose penicillin for actinomycosis [1-3]. Reasonable alternatives include ceftriaxone and amoxicillin.
What is Cervicofacial actinomycosis?
Cervicofacial actinomycosis is a chronic disease characterized by abscess formation, draining sinus tracts, fistulae, and tissue fibrosis.
How is actinomycosis treated?
In most cases of actinomycosis, antimicrobial therapy is the only treatment required, although surgery can be adjunctive in selected cases. Penicillin G is the drug of choice for treating infections caused by actinomycetes. Parenteral antibiotics are administered initially via PICC line, with transition to oral agents.
What is bottle jaw?
Medical Definition of bottle jaw : a pendulous edematous condition of the tissues under the lower jaw in cattle and sheep resulting from infestation with bloodsucking gastrointestinal parasites (as of the genus Haemonchus)
How is lumpy jaw transmitted?
Disease Transmission In general, lumpy jaw is not considered highly contagious, but the bacteria can be spread from one animal to the next through infected saliva and draining pus that contaminates feed and water.
What is sodium iodide used for in cattle?
Indications: Sodium Iodide 20% is for use in cattle as an aid in treating actinomycosis (lumpy jaw), actinobacillosis (wooden tongue) and necrotic stomatitis in cattle. Dosage and Administration: Sodium Iodide 20%.
What causes lump jaw in cows?
Lump jaw starts when a sharp object, such as a stiff piece of hay or a bit of metal, makes a cut in the cow’s gums. The object pushes bacteria into the cut as it jabs into the soft tissue, sometimes infecting the cow down to the bone. The bacteria grow inside the gums or bone, causing an abscess to form.
Is Lumpy jaw painful?
The initial swelling of the jaw bone/bones is usually painless and the animals exhibit few clinical symptoms. Once the disease has advanced, the lesions may affect the teeth and the position of the jaws, leading to inappetence and emaciation.
What is cattle Woody tongue?
Wooden tongue is a well-defined disease of the soft tissues of the mouth region in adult cattle. It is caused by actinobacillosis lignieresii, part of the normal bacterial flora of the upper digestive tract. The bacteria usually invade the skin through a wound or minor trauma caused by sticks or straw or barley awns.
What is trypanosomiasis in cattle?
Trypanosomiasis (Surra) An important disease of cattle and buffalo caused by protozoa. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies. Death may occur in 2 weeks to 2 months.
Can actinomycosis be fatal?
Actinomycetes can rarely cause intracranial infection and may cause a variety of complications. We describe a fatal case of intracranial and intra-orbital actinomycosis of odontogenic origin with a unique presentation and route of dissemination. Also, we provide a review of the current literature.
How is actinomycosis diagnosed?
Diagnosis of Actinomycosis israelii or other Actinomyces species using microscopy and culture of sputum (ideally obtained endoscopically), pus, or a biopsy specimen. Imaging tests (eg, chest x-ray, abdominal or thoracic CT) are often done depending on findings.
What part of the world you are most likely to find cases of actinomycosis?
Abdominal actinomycosis is most common in the appendix, cecum, and colon. Abdominal surgery is the most significant risk factor. Skin and soft tissue actinomycosis is rare but can occur secondary to skin injury.
What is lumpy jaw?
Lumpy jaw is an infectious bacterial disease commonly referred to as ‘actino’. This disease is similar to wooden tongue and has the potential to be fatal. Treatment can be successful if disease is detected early. It is most commonly seen in cattle.
Can actinomycosis cause PID?
This incidence increases sharply in patients being evaluated for symptomatic pelvic infection. Conversely, in women with IUDs in place and Actinomyces demonstrable in cervical smears, PID is up to 4 times as common as in those who have negative smears.
How common is actinomycosis?
Cervicofacial actinomycosis is the most common type of the infection, comprising 50-70% of reported cases. This infection typically occurs following oral surgery or in patients with poor dental hygiene.
Can Actinomyces be a contaminant?
In addition to those organisms, which are classically seen as contaminants in blood cultures, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli were identified with the Actinomyces isolates; in all of those cases, the patients were treated for those organisms even if no action was taken with respect to …
Are actinomycetes nitrogen fixing?
Actinomycetes have been shown to be involved in nitrogen fixation in various legumes and non-legumes without forming nodules [2,17]. Thus, actinomycetes have a huge influence on nitrogen availability and flux in the airsoilplant system.
Is Actinomyces acid fast?
Actinomyces are anaerobic, while Nocardia and Streptomyces are aerobic. Nocardia stain partially acid-fast, Actinomyces and Streptomyces are not acid-fast. Actinomyces and Streptomyces produce granules. Most actinomycetes in tissue do not stain with the H & E stain commonly used for general histopathology.