What are the four stages of poliomyelitis?

By | January 6, 2022

The course of the disease is divided into four stages:

  • Prodromal Stage or Pre-Paralytic Stage- few hours to a few days and 1 to 3 days is the usual duration.
  • Acute Stage-3 to 6 weeks from the onset of Poliomyelitis.
  • Convalescent Stage- Duration 3 months.
  • Stage of Recovery-This stage extends for almost 2 years.

What are the 3 types of polio?

There are three wild types of poliovirus (WPV) type 1, type 2, and type 3. People need to be protected against all three types of the virus in order to prevent polio disease and the polio vaccination is the best protection.

What causes poliomyelitis?

Polio is caused by 1 of 3 types of the poliovirus. It often spreads due to contact with infected feces. This often happens from poor handwashing. It can also happen from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.

What is the prognosis for poliomyelitis?

What Is the Prognosis for Polio? The prognosis for most patients with polio is good; the majority recover with no complications; however, patients with paralytic polio have a prognosis that ranges from good to poor as some patients may become disabled for their whole life.

What type of virus is poliovirus?

Poliovirus, a nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, is a member of the Enterovirus genus within the family Picornaviridae.

What are the complications of poliomyelitis?

Complications of Polio Symptoms

  • Inflammation of the heart muscle (Myocarditis)
  • High blood pressure (Hypertension)
  • Fluid in the lungs (Pulmonary edema)
  • Pneumonia.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)

What is the difference between polio and poliomyelitis?

Note that poliomyelitis (or polio for short) is defined as the paralytic disease. So only people with the paralytic infection are considered to have the disease. Polio has been around since ancient times.

Is polio A virus bacteria or fungi?

Polio is a viral infection that can cause paralysis and death in its most severe forms. It can spread easily from person to person.

How is polio diagnosed?

How is polio diagnosed? A healthcare provider may diagnose polio by checking your stool or throat for poliovirus. He or she may also want to do a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) to get a sample of your spinal fluid to examine.

What is acute poliomyelitis?

Acute poliomyelitis is a disease of the anterior horn motor neurons of the spinal cord and brain stem caused by poliovirus. Flaccid asymmetric weakness and muscle atrophy are the hallmarks of its clinical manifestations, due to loss of motor neurons and denervation of their associated skeletal muscles.

Can poliomyelitis be cured?

Because no cure for polio exists, the focus is on increasing comfort, speeding recovery and preventing complications. Supportive treatments include: Pain relievers. Portable ventilators to assist breathing.

What type of paralysis is observed in poliomyelitis?

The hallmark of paralytic polio is asymmetric paresis or paralysis. The maximal loss of functions is typically seen within 3 to 5 days of onset but may progress for up to 1 week. Legs are more often involved than arms, and proximal muscles of the extremities are more often involved than distal muscles (Figure 7-2).

How does poliovirus affect the body?

Polio is a viral disease which may affect the spinal cord causing muscle weakness and paralysis. The polio virus enters the body through the mouth, usually from hands contaminated with the stool of an infected person. Polio is more common in infants and young children and occurs under conditions of poor hygiene.

What is the incubation period of poliomyelitis?

The incubation period for nonparalytic poliomyelitis is 3 to 6 days. For the onset of paralysis in paralytic poliomyelitis, the incubation period is usually 7 to 21 days.

What is the disease that paralyzes you?

Guillain-Barre (gee-YAH-buh-RAY) syndrome is a rare disorder in which your body’s immune system attacks your nerves. Weakness and tingling in your extremities are usually the first symptoms. These sensations can quickly spread, eventually paralyzing your whole body.

Which is the biggest virus?

Comparison of largest known giant viruses

Giant virus name Genome Length Capsid diameter (nm)
Megavirus chilensis 1,259,197 440
Mamavirus 1,191,693 500
Mimivirus 1,181,549 500
M4 (Mimivirus bald variant) 981,813 390

Is COVID-19 an RNA virus?

COVID-19, short for coronavirus disease 2019, is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Like many other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus. This means that, unlike in humans and other mammals, the genetic material for SARS-CoV-2 is encoded in ribonucleic acid (RNA).

What type of virus is Covid?

Coronaviruses are a type of virus. There are many different kinds, and some cause disease. A coronavirus identified in 2019, SARS-CoV-2, has caused a pandemic of respiratory illness, called COVID-19.

Can adults get poliomyelitis?

Adult vaccination Adults at risk include those who are traveling to parts of the world where polio still occurs or those who care for people who have polio.

What causes hypertension in poliomyelitis?

Several authors consider that the asphyxia – caused by hypoventilation – may be, or is, the cause of the hypertension seen in polio and in the severe form of polyradiculitis (7, 28,36). Continuous over-pressure seem to cause a slight rise in both systolic and diastolic pressures (9, 37).

Which of the following complications occur during the infection of poliovirus?

Respiratory failure secondary to paralysis of respiratory muscles or to lesions of the respiratory center is a life-threatening complication of paralytic polio. Pharyngeal paralysis may occur. Myocarditis is rarely diagnosed clinically.

What does polio do to legs?

Symptoms vary from mild flu-like symptoms to life-threatening paralysis. In less than 1% of cases, polio causes permanent paralysis of the arms, legs or breathing muscles. Between 5% and 10% of people who develop paralytic polio will die. Physical symptoms may emerge 15 years or more after the first polio infection.

Who is at greatest risk of acquiring a polio infection?

Infants and children are at the greatest risk and infections are most common during summer and fall. What are the symptoms of poliomyelitis? About 90 to 95 percent of people who do get infected with polio have no symptoms at all. Of those who do get the infection, 2 percent or fewer may develop paralytic disease.

What animal did polio come from?

The discovery by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper in 1908 that polio was caused by a virus, a discovery made by inoculating macaque monkeys with an extract of nervous tissue from polio victims that was shown to be free of other infectious agents.

Is polio an airborne disease?

Sometimes poliovirus is spread through saliva from an infected person or droplets expelled when an infected person sneezes or coughs. People become infected when they inhale airborne droplets or touch something contaminated with the infected saliva or droplets. The infection usually begins in the intestine.

How many cases of polio are there in 2020?

In 2020, 140 cases of WPV1 were reported, including 56 in Afghanistan (a 93% increase from 29 cases in 2019) and 84 in Pakistan (a 43% decrease from 147 cases in 2019).

Why is polio vaccine given?

CDC recommends that children get polio vaccine to protect against polio, or poliomyelitis. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the United States since 2000. IPV is given by shot in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age.

What type of doctor treats post polio syndrome?

Neurologists are physicians who diagnose and treat disorders of the nervous system. They address diseases of the spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that affect the operation of the nervous system.

Where is polio most common?

Wild polio cases have decreased globally by more than 99% since 1988, but the virus is still endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan, which report dozens of cases every year.

Can polio be treated with antibiotics?

A health professional will confirm a diagnosis of polio by laboratory testing. What is the treatment? There are no special medicines or antibiotics that can be used to treat a person; the only treatment is supportive care.